Tag Archives: Project management

The Colors of Project Management

Author: Iliana Alvarado, PMP

When it comes to project management, most government and private organizations strive to reinforce the latest edition of the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBoK) Guide, using tried and true tools and methods such as the Work Breakdown Structure and Earned Value Management. With seemingly unlimited project management tools available to ensure project success, why do so many projects fail? According to a recent survey from the Project Management Hut, project failure is due to bad communications 57% of the time and 39% is due to lack of planning1.

Statistics aside, the nitty gritty of it is a lack of maximizing the talents of individuals comprising a project team. With much of the project focus on tasks and outcomes, project managers often miss the opportunity to realize the full capabilities of their team. Of all the resources available to project managers for team development and improving project success, one of the simplest tools to utilize is the color personality test (adapted from the True Color Personality Test2). With this survey, team members are matched to four different personality types, identifying their most prominent characteristics and preferred working environments. While this tool may seem rudimentary and maybe even trivial, the applicability of matching employees to their desired project activities is critical to project success.

The four personality types are summarized as:

  • True Blue employees are compassionate, imaginative, sensitive, prefer encouragement to completion, and react very negatively to rejection
  • Curious Green crew members are analytical, conceptual, logical, problem solvers, and need constant mental stimulation
  • Solid Gold contributors are dependable, loyal, thorough, punctual, and prefer to handle details and organization
  • Action Orange are the charming, spontaneous members who are bold and restless and thrive on independence and freedom

As reflected, each personality type brings unique strengths and talents to the project team. In future posts, I’ll discuss how to utilize the color survey to best utilize a human-centered approach to project management.

1 The Project Management Hut “Project Failure Statistics”, www.pmhut.com/project-failure-statistics-and-facts

2 True Color Personality Test, www.TrueColorsTest.com

Evolve from SIPOC to COPIS

Author: Tip Fallon, Business Analyst

The SIPOC is a quality management tool used when creating, defining, or improving a process to help the user understand the following components of a process.

  • Suppliers
  • Inputs
  • Process
  • Outputs
  • Customers

A SIPOC map is a clear, relatively high-level, and streamlined method to document and communicate the process elements listed above. However, the risk in using a SIPOC as the only or primary tool in a process improvement initiative is that a very important area may be under-emphasized: delighting the customer.  In creating a SIPOC, customers are generally identified last, and often, change management practitioners can get caught up optimizing the Process component without fully understanding the Voice of the Customer (VOC).  However, customer delight outweighs all of the other elements – Suppliers, Inputs, Process, and Outputs – combined.  An alternative model, called COPIS, can shift the focus to  delighting the customer, and thus spark innovation in the entire process.  COPIS can complement your SIPOC model (or any other tool/approach).

COPIS is SIPOC backwards and thus starts with, and focuses on, the Customer.  By suspending any thoughts, plans, and decision-making about the process, outputs, etc., a team can gain clarity and insight on what is truly Value-Add to the customer.  Only after clearly defining what deliverables, expectations, wants, needs, and services the customer would be delighted by, can meaningful and innovative Outputs be developed.  Once the right Outputs are determined, then the Process that would create those Outputs can be developed … and so forth.  COPIS is essentially applying Stephen Covey’s universal success principle of “begin with the end in mind” to process improvement initiatives.

While the SIPOC model can give you a picture to help incrementally improve a process, the COPIS model can you help transform a process by focusing on what delights the customer – and then considering what new outputs or process may be a more effective way of reaching that goal.

What do you think?  Do you find yourself in process improvement initiatives where looking at the problem from a COPIS perspective would be valuable?

More resources:

SIPOC templates: http://www.isixsigma.com/index.php?option=com_k2&view=item&id=1013:sipoc-diagram&Itemid=219

More on SIPOCs and Six Sigma: http://www.webpages.uidaho.edu/~redgeman/RLE/PUBS/SIPOC%20and%20COPIS%20-%20EDGEMAN.pdf

Avoid Becoming a Victim of Scope Creep

Author:  Robert Etris, PMP


Successful scope management is a core attribute of an efficient and effective project.  Managing scope means more than just asking for a change order or creating tension with your stakeholders.  It means upstream recognition of the change, managing the change, and recognizing new opportunities.  PMI’s Process Management Body of Knowledge defines project scope management as “the processes required to ensure that the project includes all the work required, and only the work required, to complete the project successfully.”

Understanding the Market Need

You can surely recall projects in your organization that have experienced delays, run over-budget, or failed to meet all of their objectives.  Failed, or more commonly flawed, scope management is the most common cause.  Uncontrolled scope creep – expansion of your original project scope definition – is often at the very top of the list of issues IT project managers struggle with.  Mismanaged scope hurts your bottom line, diverts resources unnecessarily from your primary business operations, and can create more inefficiencies than gains.

Keys to Successful Scope Management

Project scope management addresses what should and should not be included as part of the project.  The cornerstones of successful scope management hinge on the following attributes:

1- A robust project scope management plan. The project scope management plan is a tool describing how the project team will define the project scope, define and develop the work breakdown structure (WBS), and validate and control the project’s scope environment.  The plan examines the organization’s culture, market drivers, and policies that influence how the scope should be managed.  A good plan is often, if not typically, based on best-practices from past engagements.

2- Well defined project scope statement. The project scope statement, drafted after the development of the scope management plan, defines the project boundaries, performance and milestone targets, deliverable and acceptance requirements, assumptions, and other detailed characteristics that, together, form the whole of your project.  Downstream issues, change requests or proposals, and approved change orders can all be benchmarked against the project scope statement to inform strategic decision making.

3- Scope verification conditions for all project deliverables. Scope verification is the process by which project stakeholders formally accept and approve completed project deliverables.  Though this process holds its own importance, the systematic use of codified conditions streamlines the verification process.  Often these conditions appear as part of the scope management plan, though sometimes they can be managed separately.  Rejected deliverables should be documented (along with their conditions for rejection) and inform the occasional review of the verification conditions in light of changed altered environmental factors.

4 – Scope change control procedures to systematically manage scope change.  Invariable things change in your project – organizational direction shifts, stakeholders change, budgets shrink, and business drivers evolve.  Scope change control procedures empower your project to react to change in a managed and predictable way.  Risks are identified, alternatives analyzed, and informed decisions made.

Assessing Impact Reaps Rewards

No matter how well you plan your project, change happens.  Good or bad, internal or external in nature, forces descend on even the best laid plans to disrupt the planned flow of events.  The keys to proactively and positively managing these events rest in your ability to get full information from the outset, effectively use this information to evaluate the change, and then understand the impacts associated with your decision.  The impact analysis is critical key to successful change control.  It illuminates both the positive and negative risks to other areas of your project, potentially leading to unintended rewards and mitigated (or, even better, avoided) pitfalls.

Implementing for Success

Managing scope is difficult in today’s business environment in which so many projects want to “check the box” and maintain progress, focusing on the path that lay ahead.  In many organizations, effective scope change requires a significant mindset shift, understanding the value in taking the time to analyze a situation that could be otherwise spent on delivering project outputs.  Successful scope management will help you deliver a product that meets the business need (by accounting for changes in the operational environment), satisfies your customers (by thoughtfully managing their change request) and your managers (by efficiently managing obstacles in the path to production).  Implementing these four principles in your next project will put you on a path with a much stronger probability for success.